Database:   Grenada   Hospital Hill   Fort George   Grenada, off  

Grenada.

Other names:

What:
3-4 July 1779, French capture Grenada. *Adm. D'Estaing vs. British Commander
6 July 1779, Naval Battle "off Grenada. *Adm. D'Estaing vs. Adm. Bryan

Where:
12.05503, -61.75006, Hospital Hill, 4 Jul 1779
12.04884, -61.75435, Fort George, 4 Jul 1779
12.04882, -61.90547, Naval action off Grenada, 6 Jul 1779

Maps: [map notes]

  • 12.05503, -61.75006, Hospital Hill
  • Google Aerial or hybrid.
  • Mapquest. Aerial or street view.

  • 12.04884, -61.75435, Fort George
  • Google Aerial or hybrid.
  • Mapquest. Aerial or street view.

  • Confidence: 4

  • 12.04882, -61.90547, Naval action off Grenada
  • Google Aerial or hybrid. Zoom out 2 times.
  • Mapquest. Aerial or street view.

  • Confidence: 2

Sources:

  • "Battle of Grenada", Wikipedia. "The Battle of Grenada took place on July 6, 1779 during the American War of Independence in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy."

    "The French fleet, under Admiral Comte d'Estaing, consisted of 25 ships of the line and several frigates. The British fleet, under Vice-Admiral John Byron, had 21 ships of the line and 1 frigate. The French were anchored off Georgetown on the south-west of the island, and the English approached during the night. D’Estaing weighed at 4 A.M. and Byron chased. The British ships attacked in utter disorder and confusion. Fame, Lion and two other ships got separated from the main body, and were very badly mauled. Lion was forced to run downwind to Jamaica to avoid capture. The French lost no ships and eventually hauled off. The British lost 183 killed and 346 wounded. Fame lost 4 killed and 9 wounded. The French lost 190 killed and 759 wounded."

  • "Battle of Grenada", Answers.com. "During the early part of 1779 the naval forces in the West Indies were mainly employed in watching one another. But in June, when the British Admiral Byron went to Antigua to guard the trade convoy on its way home, his opponent, the Comte d'Estaing first captured St Vincent, and then on the 4th of July Grenada. Byron sailed in hopes of saving the island, but arrived too late. A short action was fought off Grenada on the 6th of July."

  • Archive"Partial list of British and French garrisons or detachments that served in Grenada, West Indies":
    BRITISH INFANTRY
    " 40th Foot, South Lancashire Regiment 1779"
    " 48th Foot, Northamptonshire Regiment 1774-1779
    FRENCH INFANTRY
    Metropolitan Regiments.
    " Dillon 1779-1780
    Auxerrois (detachment) 1779
    Cambresis 1779
    Foix 1779-1781
    Viennois (Grenadiers) 1779-1780
    Hainault (Grenadiers) 1779-1781
    Champagne (Chasseurs) 1779
    Royal-Comtois 1783

    Foreign Regiments in French Service
    Volontaires étrangers de la Marine, 1st Legion 1779-1780
    Black Regiments & Corps in French Service.
    Chasseurs-volontaires de Saint Domingue 1779-1783

  • J. David Zimmerman, Archive"A Short History of Fort George, St. George’s, Grenada":
    "And d’Estaing did come to Grenada. His fleet of 24 ships of the line, a dozen frigates plus auxiliaries, with over 1,300 troops arrived off the coast on 2 July, 1779. British forces consisted of 130 officers and men of the 48th Regiment of Foot, two dozen Artillery recruits, 300 or 400 Grenada Militia and 200 volunteers, including sailors drafted from ships in the harbour. The British, realising that the "three Eminences" which "..overlook'd.." Fort Royal were to be crucial in a land operation, had finally occupied them all, leaving just a few troops in the fort, where the heaviest guns pointed out to sea. Most of the British troops were stationed on Hospital Hill, the high ground 800 yards north and slightly east of the fort.

    The French landing force, composed of Dillon’s Regiment, detachments from the Auxerrois, Martinique, Cambresis and Foix regiments and the 1st Legion Volontaires-étrangers de la Marine; along with the grenadiers of the Viennois and Hanault regiments and the chasseur companies of the Champagne regiment, landed north and west of Fort Royal (out of range of the fort’s guns) on 3 July, 1779. Early on the morning of the 4th, the French made a feint with 200 men on the western side of Hospital Hill, where they were expected. At the same time, three columns of 260, 300 and 180 French troops, turned the British position and assaulted the northeastern side of the hill, trampled the palisade at the base and overcame three consecutive trench lines. The Hon. George Brizan, describes the result in his book, Grenada, Island of Conflict. "The British forces finding themselves hopelessly outnumbered rushed down the side of Hospital Hill facing the sea, past the Catholic church (of 1690, the site of the Anglican church today) and ran for cover in (what is now) Fort George". In fact, the withdrawal was planned. The French concentrated their forces and on the morning of July 5, 1779, turned abandoned and undestroyed British guns on the fort below, with predictable results. This effort, combined with a fleet action on the 6th saw Grenada and Fort Royal once again become French. "

    Archive"Plan of the French Attacks upon the Island of Grenada"

  • Snippet from "Thomas Jefferys, Grenada, 1775", Image 4723037 from the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.

    La Grande Baye:

    La Grande Baye

  • Snippet from Thomas Jefferys, Composite: West Indies, 1775, image 4723024 from David Rumsey Historical Map Collection at DavidRumsey.com:

    Grenada:

    Grenada

  • Archive"War with France & Spain 1778-1783".
    "1779 July 4 Grenada"
    "1779 July 6 Grenada"

  • "Letters of Delegates to Congress: Volume 13 June 1, 1779 - September 30, 1779 William Whipple to Josiah Bartlett": "Admiral Byron being inform[ed] of the Capture of St Vincents on his arrival at St Lucia in the Evening of the 30th sail'd the 1st of July in the morning with 18 ships of the line & 3 Frigates in order to retake it being then ignorant of the Expedition against Granada. He appeard before St Vincent & demanded a surrender but a deputation of the principal inhabitants informing him of the Resolution of the Caribs to carry devastation through the Island if an attack should be made & beseeching him to leave them to their destiny, & at the same time he being inform'd of the critical scituation of Granada abandon'd his project & directed his Course for that Island, which it is not improbable might have surrendered before his arrival as the french fleet had four days start of him."

  • Boatner: 154, 350.

  • Piers Mackesy, War for America, Published 1993, U of Nebraska Press, p.227, 273.

  • "Battles of the Atlantic (and other parts of the world) and the War for Independence", National Society Sons of the American Revolution.
    " /4/1779 Grenada West Indies Land. Shown as French victory.
    7/6/1779 off Grenada West Indies Sea
    ". Shown as draw.

  • "Table Summary of Movements of French Naval Fleets During the War for American Independence"". Useful site, also shows arrivals and departures.
    Capture of Grenada (3 Jul).
    Battle of Grenada (6 Jul).
    D'Estaing

  • "West Indies Score Card":
    "GRENADA, captured by French 4 Jul 1779"

  • "West Indies and Gulf Coast campaigns", Wikipedia:
    "France enters the war, 1778–1779

    On January 6, 1779, Admiral Byron reached the West Indies. During the early part of the year, the naval forces in the West Indies were mainly employed in watching one another. But in June, while Byron had gone to Antigua to guard the trade convoy on its way home, d'Estaing first captured St Vincent, and on July 4, he captured Grenada. Admiral Byron, who had returned, sailed in hopes of saving the island but arrived too late. An indecisive action was fought off Grenada on the July 6, 1779. Afterwards, the war died down in the West Indies. Byron returned home in August. D'Estaing, after co-operating unsuccessfully with the Americans in an attack on Savannah, also returned to Europe."

  • Archive"Travel by Seas":
    "... in the Caribbean, where prevailing winds are from the southeast the entire year."
    Estimated travel times in days (similar to mileage charts on a road map) is interesting.

  • "Lesser Antilles vs Greater Antilles / Windward Islands vs Leeward Islands - Confused Yet?", Caribbean Magazine:
    "The terms "leeward" and "windward" are used in reference to islands in an archipelago and to the different sides of a single island. In the latter case, the windward side is that side of an island subject to the prevailing wind. The leeward side is protected by the elevation of the island from the prevailing wind, and is typically drier and less windy. Thus, leeward and windward are not only important in terms of location in the island chain but also important weather and climate terms.

    The prevailing winds in the Caribbean blow from south to north. In the case of an archipelago - or a group of islands, "windward islands" are the islands facing the oncoming wind. In the case of the Caribbean the "southern" islands get hit with the wind first..."

  • Modern map of Grenada.

  • Grenada, Answers.com.

  • RevWar75  
    listing.
    7/4/1779 Grenada. French victory.
    7/6/1779 off Grenada. Shown as a draw

    Related sites: St. Vincent

    Confidence level: 5

    12-26-16