Database

Cherokee Lower Towns

Other names:
Cherokee Lower Settlements

What:
Group of Cherokee settlements found in western modern SC and northwestern modern GA in the Keowee and Tugalo River valleys.

Where: 34.905 -82.952 Cherokee Lower Towns

Maps: [map notes]

Sources:

  • Cherokee Settlements
    Cherokee Settlements
    Cherokee Lower Towns, 1750-1777
    Lower Towns

  • Lower Towns named in actions:
    Brass Town
    Cheowee (Cheowie, Chehohee, Cheohee, Chehokee)
    Esseneca (Senaca)
    Estatoe (Estatoie, Estatoee)
    Eustaste (Oustestee) Frog Town GA (?)
    Jocasee
    Keowee
    Ostatoy
    Soconee
    Sugar Town
    Tamasee (Tomasee, Tomassee)
    Tugaloo

  • "Pathways and Crossroads, Cherokee Genealogy"
    In 1755 the authorities in South Carolina for the purposes of trade documented the Ani-Yun-Wiya Villages under the following designations:

    Overhill Tows: Great Tellico, Chatugee, Tennessee, Chote, Toqua, Sittiquo, Talasee
    Valley Towns: Enforsee, Conastee, Little Telliquo, Cotocanhut, Nayowee, Tomatly, Cheowe.
    Middle Towns: Joree, Watoge, Nuckasee.
    Keowee Towns: Keowee, Tricentee, Echoee, Torsee, Cowee, Torsalla, Coweshee, Elejoy.
    Out Towns: Tucharechee, Kittowa, Conontoroy, Steecoy, Oustanale, Tuckaseegee.
    Lower Towns: Tomasee, Oustestee, Cheowie, Estatoie, Tosawa, Keowee, Oustanalle.

  • "Cherokee, Subdivisions and Villages"
    Lower Settlements: Estatoee, 2 towns: (1) Old Estatoee on Tugaloo River below the junction of Chattooga and Tullalah Rivers, in Oconee County, S. C.; (2) Estatoee in the northwestern part of Pickens County. Keowee, 2 towns: (1) Old Keowee on Keowee River near Fort George, Oconee County, S. C.; (2) New Keowee on the headwaters of Twelve-mile Creek in Pickens County, S. C., the latter also called probably Little Keowee. Kulsetsiyi, 3 towns: (1) on Keowee River, near Fall Creek, Oconee County, S. C.; (2) on Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin, Macon County, N. C.; (3) on Sugartown Creek, near Morganton, Fannin County, Ga. Oconee, on Seneca Creek near Walhalla, Oconee County, S. C. Qualatchee, 2 towns: (1) on Keowee River, S. C.; (2) on the headwaters of Chattahoochee River, Ga. Tomassee, 2 towns: (1) on Tomassee Creek of Keowee River, Oconee County, S. C.; (2) on Little Tennessee River near the entrance of Burningtown Creek, Macon County, S. C. Toxaway, on Toxaway Creek, a branch of Keowee River, S. C. Tugaloo, on Tugaloo River at the junction of Toccoa Creek, Habersham County, Ga. Ustanali, several towns so called; (1) on Keowee River below the present Fort George, Oconee County, S. C.; (2) probably on the waters of Tuckasegee River in western North Carolina; (3) just above the junction of Coosawatee and Conasauga Rivers to form the Oostanaula River in Gordon County, Ga.; (4) perhaps on Eastanollee Creek of Tugaloo River, Franklin County, Ga.; (5) perhaps on Eastaunaula Creek flowing into Hiwassee River in McMinn County, Tenn.; and (6) possibly another.

  • Louis De Vorsey, Jn.,Names in South Carolina, Vol. XVIII, p.14, Winter 1974.
    CHEROKEE TRIBAL DIVISIONS: During the eigh- teenth century the Cherokee Indians were occupying a vast mountainous region to the west of South Caro- lina. They inhabited some forty or more towns or villages each with a considerable degree of autonomy but linked into four major groups or divisions which formed the tribe or nation. These major divisions are often mentioned in eighteenth century literature and so should be understood more clearly.

    1.) THE LOWER TOWNS: the group of settlements found in the Keowee and Tugaloo river valleys.

    [2.) THE MIDDLE TOWNS:]
    [...]
    waters and upper reaches of the Little Tennessee River.

    3.) THE VALLEY TOWNS: located to the north of the Hiwassee River.

    4.) THE OVERHILL TOWNS: located on the lower reaches of the Little Tennessee River. The Valley Towns and Overhill Towns were frequently combined by eighteenth century observers. When this was the case the Valley Towns were understood to form a part of the Overhills division of the tribe.

  • James Gettys McGready Ramsey, The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century: Comprising Its ..., 1853, John Russell, p.163
    To inflict suitable chastisement upon the Cherokees, several expeditions were at once made into their territories. Colonel McBury and Major Jack, from Georgia, entered the Indian settlements on Tugaloo, and defeating the enemy, destroyed all their towns on that river. General[sic] Williamson, of South- Carolina, early in July [1776] began to embody the militia of that state, and before the end of that month was at the head of an army of eleven hundred and fifty men, marching to meet Cameron, who was, with a large body of Esseneca Indians and disaffected white men, encamped at Oconoree. Encountering and defeating this body of the enemy, he destroyed their town and a large amount of provisions. lie burned Sugaw Town, Soconec, Keowee, Ostatoy, Tugaloo and Brass Town. He proceeded against Tomassee, Chehokee and Eustustie, where, observing a recent trail of the enemy, he made pursuit and soon met and vanquished three hundred of their warriors. These towns he afterwards destroyed.

  • Edward McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, 1901 Macmillan & Co., Ltd., p.195ff

    Colonel Williamson resumed the offensive on the 2d of August, and on the 8th with 640 chosen men he marched to attack the Indian camp at Oconore ; finding it deserted, he destroyed two towns, Ostatoy and Tugaloo. He continued to advance until the 12th, when, coming up with a large body of Indians, he attacked and defeated them. They fled, leaving 16 of their men dead in space of 150 yards ; Williamson losing o' killed and 17 wounded. In this expedition he destroyed the Indian towns of Tomassy, Chehohee, and Eustash. All corn on this side of the middle settlements was destroyed, and the Indians were driven to support themselves on roots, berries, and wild fruit.

  • NBBAS:Oner p.160:
    Revlist post

  • RevWar75 RevWar75   [Some of these will be removed]
  • Jul 1775 listing  
    8/1/1775 Senaca Town (SC) American victory
  • Dec 1775 listing  
    12/22/1775 Indian Line (SC) Insufficient data.
  • May 1776 listing  
    5/1776 Earle's Fort (SC) British victory
  • Jun 1776 listing  
    6/1776 Round Mountain (Howard's Gap) (NC) American victory
  • Jul 1776 listing  
    7/1/1776 Seneca (SC) British victory.
    7/22/1776 Big Shoals, Oconee River (GA) British victory
  • Aug 1776 listing  
    8/1/1776 Seneca (Oconore Creek, Essenecca Ford) (SC) British victory.
    8/2 - 10/1776 Lower Cherokee Settlements (Sugar Town, Soconee, Jocasee, Keowee, Estatoe) (SC) American victory.
    8/8/1776 Oconore (SC) American victory.
    8/10/1776 Tugaloo River (SC) American victory.
    8/11/1776 The Ring Fight (SC) American victory.
    8/12/1776 Tamassy (Tamasee, Cheowee, Eustaste) (SC) American victory
  • Sep 1776 listing  
    9/19/1776 Black Hole of the Coweecho (Coweechee) River (NC) American victory
    9/1776 Nacoochee Valley (GA) American victory
    9/1776 Frog Town (GA) American victory
    9/1776 Little Echota (Chatahoochee River) (GA) American victory
  • Oct 1776 listing  
    10/27/1776 Neowee Creek (NC) British victory
    10/1776 French Broad River (NC) American victory.
  • Jul 1777 listing  
    7/22/1777 Oconee River (GA) British victory
  • Apr 1779 listing  
    before 4/15/1779 Northeast Georgia (GA) Draw
  • Dec 1780 listing  
    12/16/1780 Cherokee Towns (Tellico, Echota, Citico, Hiwasee, Chestowee, Toqua, &c (TN)
    12/25/1780 Chilhowee and Telassee (TN) Draw
    12/28/1780 Tellico River (TN) Draw
    12/31/1780 Christowee (TN) Insufficient data.
  • Jun 1781 listing   6/1781 Raids against Cherokees (NC) American victory.
  • Mar 1782 listing  
    early 3/1782 Cherokee Towns (SC) American victory.
    3/1782 Lower Settlements (SC) American victory
  • Jul 1782 listing  
    mid 7/1782 Georgia Frontier (GA) American victory
  • Sep 1782 listing  
    9/16 - 10/17/1782 Cherokee Campaign, Frontier (SC) American victory.

Related locations:
Brass Town,   Cheowee (Cheowie),   Esseneca (Senaca),   Estatoe (Estatoie, Estatoee),   Eustaste (Oustestee),   Frog Town GA (?),   Jocasee,   Keowee,   Ostatoy,   Soconee,   Sugar Town,   Tamasee (Tomasee, Tomassee),   Tugaloo,   Cherokee Middle Towns,   Cherokee Overhill Towns,  

Confidence level:: See above.