Other names: Goi-o-gouen
9/23/1779. Burned by Lt.Col. William Butler.
Where: 42.833333, -76.683333 Cayuga Castle
Maps: [map notes]
- Elvin Birth, The 1779 Western Campaigns, Raleigh: 2003, privately published, "Journals.pdf", p.159. 42.816091 -76.749039
- Site of Cayuga Castle historical marker. , N 42° 48.750, W 076° 41.918 (42.81250 -76.69865)
East Varick, Seneca County, NY
Site Two Miles East
Cayuga Village Destroyed
In Sullivan Campaign
- Projection of new location from current. 2 miles east of N 42° 48.750 W 076° 41.918 = 42.81249321053, -76.65927952
- Elvin Birth, The 1779 Western Campaigns, Raleigh: 2003, privately published, "Journals.pdf", p.161, 164. 42.80964 -76.70076
Picture of monument
The Cayuga Castle capital of the Cayuga Nation and outlying villages
extended from this point Eastwardly on the Great Gully to Sciopioville
and Mapleton. Here in 1656 labored the Jesuit missionaries Chaumanot and Menard. Later Le Moyne de Carheil and
Raffeix. They built here the first house of Christian worship West of
Onondaga. Hither came also the Moravian missionaries Cammerhoff
and Zeisberger first, later Sir William Johnson. The Cayuga
Reservations were here. The last Cayugas and Tuscaroras departed
about 1800. The Cayuga Castle and near-by towns were taken and
destroyed by a detachment from General Sullivan's Army commanded
by Lieut. Col. William Butler on September 22-23, 1779.
Erected by the State of New York 1929
- Wiki: Goiogouen (also spelled Gayagaanhe and known as Cayuga Castle)
Goiogouen (also spelled Gayagaanhe and known as Cayuga Castle), was a major village of the Cayuga nation of Iroquois Indians in west-central New York State. It was located on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake on the north side of the Great Gully Brook, about 10 miles (16 km) south of the large 17th-century Cayuga town of Tiohero; and approximately along the southern line of the modern-day township of Springport, New York. It was located about four miles (6 km) north from Chonodote, the present-day location of the village of Aurora, New York and about two miles (3 km) south of the village of Union Springs, New York....
42.833333, -76.683333. Basis for location Note: This location is almost 2 miles n. of that described on historical highway marker above.
At the time of the American Revolution, Goiogouen consisted of "fifteen very large square log houses" (longhouses), deemed to be very well built by the scouting parties of the Sullivan-Clinton Campaign; and "in the vicinity...were one hundred and 10 acres (40,000 m2) of corn; besides apples, peaches, potatoes, turnips, onions, pumpkins, squashes and other vegetables in abundance." The village was destroyed by these American troops on September 23, 1779.
A monument erected in 1929 by New York State stands near the location of Goiogouen.
- Conover, George S., compiler Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations Indians in 1779.., Auburn NY: Knapp, Peck & Thomason, 1887, pages suggested by Elvin Birth.
Early in the morning of Wednesday, September 22d, the detachment reached Cayuga
Castle. Thomas Grant describes this town as containing fifteen very large square log
houses, and adds," I think the building superior to any I have yet seen." Two other towns
were in the immediate neighborhood : one, a mile south from the Castle and called by our
men Upper Cayuga, containing fourteen large houses, and the other, two miles north-east
of the Castle, (Grant says,) called by our men Cayuga, sometimes East Cayuga, or Old
Town. In the vicinity of the Castle, were one hundred and ten acres of corn ; besides
apples, peaches, potatoes, turnips, onions, pumpkins, squashes and other vegetables in
abundance. Major Grant describes Cayuga as a large and commodious town consisting
of about fifty houses, but he evidently includes the three towns mentioned by Thomas
Grant ; he also adds that the troops found salt here, manufactured by the Indians from
the salt springs near Choharo, some United States muskets and a few regimental coats.
The Oneidas, who accompanied the detachment of Colonel Butler on their return to
their own country and who had besought clemency for the Cayugas, were somewhat displeased
with General Sullivan's answer to their petition, but, on searching the houses at
Cayuga, some fresh scalps were discovered, sxhich, being sbown to them, convinced them
of the justice of the course pursued by General Sullivan. This town, the Cayuga Castle,
probably was on or near one called by the French Jesuits, Goi-o-gouen, at which the mission
of St. Joseph's was established, and which General John S. Clark locates on the north
side of Great Gully Brook. This corresponds with the distance (ten miles.) recorded by
Benjamin Lodge, the Surveyor of the expedition, who accompanied this detachment.
On his map, Cayuga Castle is located on the north side of the stream, and Upper Cayuga
on the south side of it.
The troops were employed until three o'clock P. m., of the next day, in destroying this
place when they marched to Chonodote
- Sep 1779 listing. 9/13/1779 Geneseo. American defeat.